Sunday, September 28, 2008

Abraj Al Bait

When modernity touch religion it's no surprise that edifice belong to it veered away from the cultural. Abraj Al Bait is no exception, a five-star hotel. Abraj Al Bait is lived to welcome and serve visitors who pay visit to the Holy City of Makkah from corners of the world. the edifice is capable of handling 65,00 people, four-storey 780-car parking and 10 for buses, fully serviced one-to-three bedrooms. It also includes a four-storey mall for convenience, conference center for 1,500 persons and equipped by two helipads. The prayer hall is capable of handling 3800 persons.

The project is commissioned to Bin Laden Group and in design of architectural firm Architect Dar Al Handasah Architects. The name of the building is equivalent to 'The House' in plain english.

Abraj Al Bait is a conglomeration of seven towers which is bombarded by its below average design. When completed it will be the largest (not the tallest single-premise (buldings) in the world and soars at the height of 485 meters. Height will be the most in Saudi Arabia overreaching Petronas Towers who crowned from its astronomical height from 1998 until 2003. Building sits across the street from the entrance to the Masjid al Haram, which houses holiest site in Islam, -Kabaa.

Emaar is the developer of Abraj Al Bait.

Construction is on going and timed to finish before 2009.

Thursday, September 25, 2008

Moscow Crystal Island by Norman Foster

The world will be reverberated upon the new crystallization in Moscow. Not by height, but by stunning simplicity weaved by intertwined spiral diagonal lines, soaring at slendered shape in the skyline with its pristine white engulfed by greeneries: Crystal Island of Moscow.

Crystal Island kissed at the height of 450 meters with its blatant pointed pinnacle while the base stretched at the diameter of 701 meters, a picture of stability. The shape is a cone pulled upward and embraced by triangular cells cladded by glass. At the bottom are cascading gardens and parks. 

The building is located on the Nagatino Peninsula and sits at the skirt of Moscow River while 7.5 km away is the Kremlin.

Crystal Island is a mixed-used building: offices, residentials, exhibitions, museums, theatres, school, cinemas and has 16,500 parking areas. The building is one of the most ambitious building proposal in Moscow with the aspiration as the largest single-building in the planet. The view is a stunning panorama. Another ingenuity is the enclosure panels which are dynamic prior to penetration of heat outside and wind as well.

It's no surprise to many of us if we take the fact that Norman Foster is the architect behind the project. Shalva Chigirinsky is the investor.

Millenium Tower World Business Center

For the business metropolis of Busan, Korea, a new landmark is about to carry the trend of the city. The Millennium Tower World Business Center, a trinity of towers in its irregular rigidity. The tower stands as picture of crispy-chamferred-crystallized-geometry with its tapering height. The tower soars at the commanding view of mountain and sea. As to the location, Millenium Tower World Business Center is a stinger for the city, but not ignoring the polite culture Korea has.. The design is celebrated from the fact that it veered away from the usual and almost stringent singular tall buildings.

The commission is a stem-project from a competition organized by the Busan International Architectural Culture Festival (BIACF) and was sponsored by the Municipality of Busan City and the Solomon Group. And was awarded and commissioned to New York based architectural firm: Asmptote Architecture namely in the names of principals Hani Rashi and Lise Anne Coulture. 

Asymptote Architecture has a reputable history worldwide whose commissions counted on: Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, the ORCO Group Paris, the New York Stock Exchange, Aldar Properties Abu Dhabi and the Equine Group in Malaysia.

The planning and materialization of WBCB belong to the following people:
  • Comissioner: Municipality of Busan City and the Solomon Group
  • Project: Hani Rashid and Lise Anne Couture
  • Group: Project Architect: Theo Lalis Sarantoglou
  • Design Team Phase II: Hani Rashid, Lise Anne Couture, Theo Lalis Sarantoglou, Angie Co, Andrew Bryant, Kasper Ax, Elise Delestre, Alessandro Gess, Martin Henn, Klaus Ransmayr.

  • Structures: ARUP David Scott, Matt Jackson, Matthew Clark, Gordon Carrie
  • Landscape: Balmori Associates
  • Consultants: Cladding Consultants: Front inc. Michael Ra, Mark Simmons, Elaine Yau, Ryan Salvas Lighting Consultant: L’Observatoire International Herve Descottes,

Wednesday, September 24, 2008

Al Burj Dwarfed Burj Dubai: Higher Aspiration!

In the next two years or a year, Dubai, with Burj Dubai is about to rewrite the history of skyline.

But just when people thought that such achievement is a once-in-a-lifetime for any country, Dubai has aggresively taken a new and higher aspiration: a mile-high tower, poking at 1,200 meters.

The tower, 'Tall Tower' will stand at the Dubai Waterfron under the development of Nakheel. Tall Tower was coined as 'The Pinnacle' and originally proposed to stand in the center of Palm Island, the larget man-made island. Al Burj or Tall Tower is now about to soar near Jumeirah Lake Towers and Dubai Marina.

The tower is a mixed-used edifice designed by Pei Partnership Architects. The premise is a conglemeration of three towers linked by skybridges which works as sky lobbies; atop of each sky lobby is a sky garden. One of the tower is lower and plushed by large outdoor pool on the roof while the two are crowned by diabolical antennaes.



Thursday, September 18, 2008

The Humbled Constellation

The nearest stars are nearer as anyone could begin to imagine; a constellation for the first time has been weaved to dwell on land. From American architecture firm, Gensler comes the Constellation, a flaring landmark from afar and a lighthouse of the wide vanity of silky black sky.

Constellation stays anonymous to what country it will be bestow in. Yet there are mixtures of opinions regarding the design especially the execution of geometry. Some claim the shape is superfluously executed leaving some of the volumes useless while the rest feels celebrated regarding the extraordinary approach.

The height is exactly pinned at 500m, comprising of 20 floors for office use. The first cavity, ground floors consist of entrance, retail area and the highly acknowledged exibhitions of Islamic Astronomy. Moreover, the design stays humble which use timber and gravel, an earthy approach. The rest of the tapering height goes to private function rooms. The helipad which is usually crowned atop of tower is hung aside of it.

Design is inspired by Islamic astronomy that put a huge role during the institution of civilization in the interval of 8th and 15th centuries. The geometry was exrtacted from a constellation with the aid of simulation on 3d computer model. The will is to draw a constellation in the skyline when night hit the day

Tuesday, September 16, 2008

Chicago Spire: Imposing Height

A vertical 150-storey residential edifice is soaring upward at the skyline of Chicago. With the shape of a drill poking its point in the pinnacle, a new residential building will claim the highest skyline in the west.

Chicago Spire houses 1,193 homes. The rainwater is recycled to use on landscaping treatments. While water from rivers is used for cooling. Waste storage and recycling management pursuant to environmental acts and LEED compliance are part of provision as well. Some amenities for roughly 400 bikes is present in the premise too.

Enter Chicago Spire, a 2000-feet equivalent to 609.6 meters. Chicago Spire constitutes a lot honor to look up on:

  • GOLD LEED Certification, LEED is a an environmental certificate compliance required to buildings especially to large developments or anything that would have big impact on environment.
  • 15 percent more efficient than current energy regulations
  • Protects migratory birds for ingenius glass design
  • Longest height-spree for elevators in the world at 1,864 feet equivalent to 568.14 meters

Chicago Spire is unique head over heels; all units are uniquely design, compliant to twisted flooring upward. While parks are reserved for tenants and extended to public as well. Some of the claimed materials of interior are marble, granite, onyx stone. Amenities include annular recreational and lap pool, cigar room, library, private movie theater, business center and conference room, private dining areas and full concierge services
Chicago Spire is a project venture to Perkins & Will, designed by Santiago Calatrava with Thornton Tomasetti, structural engineers with Cosentini Engineering Firm for electrical and mechanical.

Construction had already started 2007 of June and timed to finish at 2011 including the occupancy.

Friday, September 12, 2008

London Bridge Tower

London Bridge Tower is a vertical man-execution worth £1.2bn to poke the UK skyline at a height of 310 meters and which will break the 1000-feet-claimed-highest-building and will also overreach SwissRe roughly twice the height. Several claims that this will be the first genuine mixed-use by its own purpose, standing as hub of King's College and Guys hospital that sits in the business community in front of river.

The tower is made up of 72 floors and extends to 15 plant floors. A pyramid pulled out blatantly from atop at great length to reach on skyline.

Aesthetic is stunning while sustainability design is a work of ingenuity: 30% less energy compliant, recycled materials but exudes a subtle plush, a double-layered cladding to filter thermal penetration not to mention the heat that engulfs the building is use to heat certain cavities of the building. Another feat of design is based on the apprehension of terrorists attack, accounted from 9/11 which drives the stability and ease of access on egress during calamity.

The project is commissioned to Renzon Piano and under the development of Sellar Property Group.

The development extends redesigning London Bridge Tube and bus stations.

tribute to: skyscrapercity

Atrium City Towers Designed By Adrian Smith

Just when everyone thought that ego in height in Dubai is celebrated solitary, Atrium City Towers has taken peculiarity by soaring trinity of towers in its silver-sheathed while seamlessly merged at the bottom organically. It is a three-pronged edifice, towers have different heights respectively.

The highest tower among the three celebrates the height of 600 meters comprising 100 floors while connected by three triangular skybridges and one atop. Total area is 800,000 to 900,000 square meters and provides parking for 6,000 people.

Building is reserved for mix-used: hotel and residential, commercial, retail and entertainment, offices.

Adrian Smith, architect of Atrium City Towers claims, "The new towers that we have planned, the AC Tower and EP towers will, for the first time, employ the latest architectural ideas and techniques. They will be more energy efficient, high density building and highly sustainable,"

Not to mention, Adrian Smith's account on Dubai found a space in urban development:

"Dubai has already become the host to the highest number of supertowers in the world,"

Adrian also said:

"For example a canal and waterway will pass through the AC Towers and will create an open space for educational and theatrical activities."

At the bottom of the building is the colossal-semi-circle arch that almost inscribe in the diameter of the building acts as tunnel momentarily not to mention the building's bottom is a body of water. Skybridgres at intervals have quite ironic feat, cable-stays are attached underneath the bridges.

Public claim the design stems from a saguaro cactus that probably stirred the imagination of Adrian Smith. While some critics claim that design is inspired by Calatrava Towers in Valencia.

Adrian Smith is a former architect from Skidmore Owings & Merrill (SOM) who built his own firm, his partner Gordon. Adrian Smith's withdrawal is pursuant to age limit of 65.

Nevertheless, Atrium City Towers is another feat of Dubai skyline that will shape the urban fabric for the next decades.

Wednesday, September 10, 2008

Civilization Jumpstart: Proposal of World's Tallest Structure in the Desolated Namibia, A Solar Power Generator

Namibia desert is no different from any other deserts.

While lately, Namibia is sought to jumpstart a civilization: taking the pride for building the world's tallest structure and will ultimately dwarf the ever known highest proposal, Burj Dubai.

The tower is coined as Greentower in a rising cylinder and a subtle slendered-tapered with a diameter of 280 meters

Though committed and commissioned as the tallest structure in the planet, questions still fly:

Will it suffice the country's need for electrical power?

Can Namibia and its partners afford the $900 million price tag?

Though soaring into astronomical sky, Namibia Solar Generator is not to be confused harnessing energy from the sun, instead it pulls out energy from warm air into its surrounding, and tower stands as concentric generator.

The tallest structure seems to grow in the seemingly desolated city of Namibia, South Africa. It's a solar structure that would generate as huge as astronomical as the structure is: 400 megawatts of power roughly 308 average wind turbines. The proposal roots from its location where an ocean of warm air swims throughout that drives the design which contains wind turbines

The structure also wished to extend growing crops for the purpose of feeding the people.

Spearheaded by German firm Hanh and Hanh to construct a 1,500 meter solar tower, a leviathan on the desert where its bottom-sheet spans at the diameter of 280 meters.

The proposal is still pending on approval of Namibia's government perusing for threats it could bring in the future.

Monday, September 8, 2008

Burj Dubai: A Flagpole of Stupendous Achievement


With the boost of economy in United Arab Emirates, Dubai has taken the flagpole of one of the most stupendous achievement not only in architecture but I would say the dream of every city: highest free standing structure in the world: the silvery sheated concrete building - Burj Dubai.



Burj Dubai's design is a symphony of towers vaying heights cursed and bonded to soar on a once unreached skyline throughout the planet. Higher than the building could soar is perhaps what Adrian Smith feels, architect of Burj Dubai under the commission of world's top architectural firm: Skidmore Owings and Merrill (SOM) who took the commissioned of Sears Tower at Chicago and Freedom Tower at New York. While design is materialized by builders: Korean company Samsung Enginering & Construction who handled Petronas Twin Tower and Besix from Belgium in the command on construction manager Arabtec Turner Construction Company from UAE. Burj Dubai is under the development of Emaar Property.



The building sits at the downtown of Dubai at the First Interchange ( aka "Defence Roundabout") along Sheikh Zayed Road at Doha Street and still under construction.

Burj Dubai's superb astronomical height stays unknown for the apprehension of other structures on competing it. But secrets don't lasts, especiallay on such craved-fact. Contractors from Burj Dubai claims for the height of 818 meters equivalent to 162 floors. While Greg Sang, construction manager claims a rough estimate of higher than 700 meters and advocated for the well-known fact as the presumably highest free-standing structure in the planet, the definite thing in the future as nearly everyone claims.

Projects construction costs US$4.1 billion for the building itself while the whole premise, "Downtown Dubai" costs US$20 billion. By the midterm of construction phase February 2007, Burj Dubai had surpassed the Sears Towers in the title of the most number of floors. Next honor accounted for the highest vertical concrete pumping on any building at 452 meters (1.483 feet) just 3 meters away from Taipei 101 and by July 21, 2007 Dubai in unfinish state took the honor as the tallest building on the world.



Geometry of the buildinng footprint is inspired by the flower hymenocallis while partly lives in the Islam Architecture. Many found that the design of Burj Duabi with its downtown is an exemplary, for it is a reminiscent of Frank Lloyds Wrights' vision "The Illinois". The basic geometrical design of floor plan spells in "Y" shape; facing the opening side to showcase the views of Persian Gulf. But there is something more prevailing, the wind. to combat this, engineers rotated the plan from its original orientation to 120 degrees to appease on strong winds. And from its peak, Burj Dubai sways at 1.2 m.

Burj Dubai with its downtown boosts on the value of real estates. Mohamed Ali Alabbarm the CEO of Emaar Properties, speaking at the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat 8th World Congress accounted for the exorbitant land values:

Burj Dubai Office: $4000 per square feet or $43,000 per square meters

Armani Residences (In the premise of Burj Dubai): $3500 per suare feet or $37,500 per square meters.


Once again, indeed Burj Dubai has rewritten the history by reclaiming the Middle East as having the would-be highest soaring structure since 1311 A. D. when Great Pyramid of Gizan was surpassed by Lincoln Cathedral of England.

Saturday, September 6, 2008

Frank Gehry Valedictory Contribution: Art Gallery of Ontario

The ever known architect, Frank Gehry, known for subversive and edgy designs hit back his town with a major stupendous commission worth $217 million, one of the largest museum in North America located in Canada: Art Gallery of Ontario.






Art Gallery of Ontario (AGO) was redesigned head over heels, commissioned to Frank Gehry under four years and flagged with modern materials. The institution will have a subtle touch of Gehry's wild geometrical approach while preserving the spirit of the vast museum. From 486,000 to 583,000 square meters, the museum will house artworks from 100 A.D. to the contemporary era not to mention that the museum holds the largest collection of British sculptor, Henry Moore.
Much of the design soars upward to preserve the museum's footprint. The museum is timed to reopen on November 14.

Frank Gehry feels nostalgic in this project for he spent most of his childhood
Frank Gehry claims:

"The Art Gallery of Ontario is where I first experienced art as a child and it was Grange Park where I played, so this project means a great deal to me. The building we envision will connect the city and its people to great art and art experiences."

For we are pretty much aware that museums drags up the economy or at least earn diplomacy, like Gehry claims:

"Throughout history, the buildings that define a city are the public ones, Museums are important pieces of our culture, so they deserve to have an iconic presence.”

Frank Gehry is partly an exemplary of architecture metaphor and partly a figure of subversive ideas towards building solution. His works are exhibited in major museums throughout the world, part of it caught the heart of his avid audience while part of it are ill-criticized.





tribute to: construction.com
image source: architecturelist

Friday, September 5, 2008

Sandton City Shopping Center's Great Revival

Sandton Shopping Center of Africa is taking a new horizon. With the spear of international architectural firm, RTKL, the shopping complex will soon receive a stupendous amount of $226 million to commission on renovation and revive the life of mall from its very existence way back 1974. The project is a stupendous achievement from a competition picked by Liberty Life Properties.

Africa's shopping complex is an array of 300 shops, 11 cinemas, restaurants, with office and hotel, all of which dwell on 158,000 square meters. The design of the mall looks forward on a seamless integration on its city while stretching the premise for an extra 30,000 square meters. Plenty of features are to showcase on the complex including, new plaza, atrium, roof gardens just to name a few.

Ever since, the prestigious mall has been a major node in the city, this time part of sustainability is to take consideration on smaller premise.

Paul Dunn from RIBA and director of RTKL claims, “Our efforts are rooted in a desire to reposition Sandton City and transform its long-term vision. We are taking a space that is somewhat fragmented and dated and infusing it with a fresh, modern sensibility. Sandton City will soon be a shining example of commercial elegance and sophistication—a testament to successful mixed-use development.”

Sandton Shopping Center had renovated twice from its inauguration and construction is timed to finished early 2012.

Wednesday, September 3, 2008

Pushkin Museum of fine Arts and Foster + Partners Empire

The heritage has taken its place on the modern urban. In time of 2012 centennial celebration of Russia, a museum is in thrust for a commemorative year. Works of Rembrandt, Piranesi, Renoir, Monet, Gauguin and Van Gogh which also extends to Egyptian relics will be celebrated in the institution of Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts.

Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts is a project entrusted to Foster + Partners, a stupendous commission worth $177 million. The museum sits on the 1-million-square-foot extends for restoration of Beaux Arts (1912 institution designed by Roman Klein) while converting the roadways to embellished pedestrian zones.

The project also include library, cinema and an administrative center.
Part of the premise is including two new underground pedestrians.

The architecture firm, Foster + Partners is a high-end firm commissioning high-end projects saturated in Russia. Russia Tower which belongs to umbrella of Foster + Partners is about to be the tallest building in Europe soaring at the height of 2,009 feet high. Last but no the least, is the Crystal Island at an astronomical height of 1,476 feet, taking the pride as the largest building in the world.

image source: Foster + Partners

Tuesday, September 2, 2008

London Olympics 2012: Stadium Unveiled





Critics on London 80,000-seat stadium for 2012 Olympic had bombarded the design as a work of mediocre. Critics extend too that the presentation during the bidding the conceptual images was scarce.

Rod Sheard claims: “a very simple building with a very tight, compelling bowl.”. ODA (Olympic Delivery Authority) took height that the stadium is subject to adaptive and practical uses.

The 92-feet diameter stadium is subject to removing 55,000 seats after the Olympic festivity, leaving 25,000 seats.

Severals critics also stormed the design, from columns as well as architects. The canopy took shed only 67 percent leaving the rest exposed to sky. While some took the blame on ODA and claim that authorities are taking too much interest on legacy rather than structures.

Conversely, the excitement goes on fabric curtain that will embrace on the perimeter of the stadium, showcasing electronic images. Supporters claim that the design tool pride from sustainability, which can be dismantle after the Olympics.

Design is not faith ful from its first proposal during the bidding of 2012 London Olympics. The design concept belong to muscles support the body. For economical reasons, the ODA took a less complicated version.

The structure is sought to finish on 2011 same year that the Handball Arena will be inaugurated.

image source: source
tribute to: construction.com

Monday, September 1, 2008

London Olympics: Handball Arena Design Opened

Make, architecture firm that holds for the 2012 London Olympic has just showcased a handball arena design. Located at the Olympic Part at Stratford, East London

With the boost of Handball Sports in Beijing (first played in Olympics in 1936). A new low-cost design has been brought in the public for commentary for the long upcoming 2012 Olympics in London.

London Handball Arena has a capacity of 6000 to 7000 seats. The arena is sought to finish in 2011.

The arena is an achievement piece of 'Make' among dRMM, Grimshaw and David Morley Architects.

ODA (Olympic Delivery Authority) claims it as natural and subdued tones on its exterior, banded by a span of glass showcasing a colourful interior.

As per sustainability, water flows came from collected and harness natural lighting atop of it.

image courtesy: source
tribute to: bdonline, wikipedia

Sunday, August 31, 2008

Dubai Defies Static Panorama: Rotating Skyscraper!

With the emerging building industry in Dubai. Architect David Fisher is taking its place to defy the static panoramic views.

An 80-storey tower is about to soar in the skyline with its shitfting floors periodically making a slender shift-shape.

Architect David Fisher holds at news conference in New York:

"It's the first building that rotates, moves, and changes shape,"



The building took sustainability feat, a compelling ingenuity, generating power from wind turbines attached to each storey to power up a 420-meter that spins in full rotation around an axle for every one and three hours.

Dubai's moving skyscraper costs roughly $700M and will be inaugurated in 2010







image courtesy (first): source

image courtesy (second): source

tribute to: BBC News, http://www.fahad.com/

Saturday, August 30, 2008

Shanghai World Financial Center Inaugurated

August 30 2008, Shanghai World Financial Center has just brought itself to the public.

Soaring at the height of 492 meters at the heart of city Pudong, the skyscraper win the attention from its geometricall eye catching shape. Amidst several astronomical skyscrapers soaring in the skyline throughout the world, Shanghai World Financial Center claims the fact as the tallest completed building.

Developed by the Mori Building Company and designed by Kohn Perderson Fox.

image courtesy of: wikipedia

tribute to: source

Friday, August 29, 2008

South Korea's New Cultural Tower

South Korea had just finalized the design of their proposed Cultural Tower to soar on the Incheon South Korea.

GDS had taken down 146 entries through 46 countries from Korea Land Corporation's design competition last March. Charged with the thought: 'In the absence of matter is the presence of hope', the edifice goes in the design concept of crystalline shard.

Charles Wee, Design Principal of GDS Architects claims: “Too often in modern times, the phrase ‘Landmark Tower’ is indicative of a nation’s desire/ego to showcase a level of economic prosperity and technological achievement for others to envy. Rather than fall victim with trying to compete with the great iconographic landmarks of the world or develop another version of the “tallest observation tower”, our heart, minds and motivation were set to represent the Power of Absence and the Strength of “Nothingness” often referred to by Louis Kahn.”

Cheongna City Tower veered away from the typical concept of highrises both by purpose and message. The very foundation of design is to permeate a hope throughout the world. The tower soars ath the astronomical height of 446 meters and popularized in the name of Tower Infinity; to illustrate humbleness and innocence from which a cultural, observation deck will function not to mention other facilities as well.


Engulfed by educational purpose, Infinity Tower are paved by technical ingenuity and innovation to lay a space where experience and education combine.

Michael Collins & Scott Callihan, Senior Associates of GDS claims:

Our shared belief in Society’s obligation for educating and mentoring our youth and steadfast determination to shy away from the typical themepark ride clich├ęs led us to create more stimulating and rewarding user experience venues. This can be seen in the Views of the World, where users enter the elevator and upon ascent to the observation level, begins a user experience where all walls transform into actual views at their corresponding heights from significant observation towers/buildings around the world.












Groundbreaking for Tower Infinity is scheduled in 2010 and completion in 2013.

Thursday, August 28, 2008

Iconic Chrysler Building Purchased by Abu Dhabi


The ever icon of Art Deco, Chrysler Building soaring in the New York skyline has been recently purchased by Abu Dhabi sovereign at US$2.8 billion.

The purchasing of the building was the second transaction of real estate this year on the Manhattan skyline.

Middle Eastern investors has been the top foreign claimers of buying commercial real state this year followed by German Investors.

Chrysler Building, a 77-storey edifice was designed by William Van Allen and was the most astronomical building in the skyline of Manhattan by the year it was finished, 1930. It was then permeated as the exemplary of Art Deco throughout the globe. The height has been overreached a year after by Empire Building.



The Fundamental Science of Architecture

The exact science goes to chemistry of logic and aesthetics. Architecture is the study of planning the spaces by how it would be allocated or breakdown into something useful for the target users .

The most immediate proof of architecture for the public is the aesthetic side. Anything pleasing to the eye is convincing for the average viewer. A post-modern building (building which borrows personality from the past, a classical column) for example, could subtly induce classic flavor for the public but the practicality inside or the usage is another thing. The man that unite these two: the aesthetic and function is called the architect.

The design behind every project or buildings is by no means static. This depends first of all on the type of the building of course. For example an average subdivision have 6 to 8 meters two way road throughout the subdivision. On the other side of the town, a low-cost-housing could have a minimal vehicular road and the rest extends to alleys to minimize cost, after all, people who live might probably have no wheels, or statistically 7 persons for 1 car.Another example per facility: domestic kitchens has average sink depth and minimal piping facility (p-trap for example: pipe that goes under your sink bent to block the odor and entry of cockroaches or other pests) while restaurants have deeper sinks to accommodate large number of dishes and special plumbing the clean out the intense grease.

All projects, in or out the field of Architecture are comprise of several components; let's put it in bare way and what goes subtly unique into it.A usual tangible project starts by analyzing the site: its feasibility which also extend to feasibility on the long run, in simple word, anticipation. This includes the Comprehensive Land Use Plan. Pursuant to local laws or ordinances, buildings should follow the blueprint of the land use or reserved building type of the town or city. Which means, a lot or a parcel of lot has been preplanned long before that very project had started or implemented, is it reserved for agricultural, commercial (sometimes equivalent to residential) or preserved by the government for future plans?After such rigorous study on the site enters the climax and heart of project, planning.Some architects don't jump on planning rectilinear way, instead a study called the Bubble Space Diagram is formulated. Bubble Space Diagram is a standard-operating-procedure that preview the proximity and accessibility of spaces by use of balloons or bubble diagrams for ease of sketch and fast estimation of spaces.

After planning, engineers and other affiliated professionals are commissioned to work on the project: master plumbers, electrical engineers just to name a few. Before planning enters a heap of contract documents, I won't mention it here for it's ubiquitous in all formal projects. Next is the construction phase. Rough estimates shows that labor costs 35 percent of the total construction instrument and of course the rest goes to materials

Still, the man that stands at the center is the architect. He is responsible in each and every way of execution of the project.Unlike other fields of Arts, Fine Arts for instance , Architecture is an extroverted profession for it embraces the both the people and the built environment. The design of an architect should not only satisfy his/her standards (at least) but should also meet the needs, likes and behaviors of target users. Anything beyond this is preposterous or selfish.

The architect stands behind this science who receives the credits or suffer from any critiques that stems from his works.